Author Topic: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum  (Read 184 times)

William S.

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Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« on: 2018-10-11, 08:49:27 PM »
Ok, so my winter project at present is to get some successful crosses with Solanum peruvianum. Two years ago Joseph sent me some wild tomato seeds. The species that has impressed me the most to date has been Solanum peruvianum. It gets ripe fruit, it volunteers, and it seems to have cold/frost tolerance greater than the rest. Only problem is it so far hasn't crossed with the rest for me. So I am exploring a belt and suspenders methodology towards getting it crossed. I've already made some controlled pollinations (I currently have one peruvianum pollen donor and one receptive domestic plant), and I hope to be able to rescue some embryos using a plant tissue culture kit I used to use for lily propagation. Backup plan is I've acquired some known bridging lines of Solanum arcanum and Solanum chilense from the TGRC and I hope to cross those in to create bridging lines. Anyway, that's my one and only project for the winter.
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bill

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #1 on: 2018-10-11, 11:12:56 PM »
Is S. peruvianum the same ploidy/chromosome number as the domesticated tomato?  Does the concept of endosperm balance number exist in tomatoes as it does in potatoes?

William S.

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #2 on: 2018-10-12, 05:08:23 AM »
Hi Bill,

It's my understanding that all tomato species are the same ploidy level. I believe it's 2n=24. I am not familiar with an endosperm balance number concept, but may just not have heard of it yet.
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Joseph Lofthouse

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #3 on: 2018-10-12, 08:44:13 AM »
William, I was reading an article the other day which indicated that S peruvianum can accept pollen from S pennellii. Might be worth exploring as a bridge cross.

Andrew Barney

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #4 on: 2018-10-12, 09:41:06 AM »
 Nice,  loving this thread already. I too am working with William, Joseph, and others on what i unofficially call "The Great Wild Tomato Breeding Project" hahaha. But yes,  Solanum peruvianum is one of the more interesting species that we have yet to cross with domestic tomatoes and maybe even other wilds, but is a very interesting species. It grows well for me and i think has good drought tolerant root genetics.

I helped send one line of [Domestic tomato x S. Pennellii] hybrids to Joseph and others to help get that germplasm out there. But i am interested in or working with many other species as well. This summer i had an unknown bee pollinated wild tomato hybrid (or hybrids) show up. So far it looks to be a Solanum cheesmaniae or galapagense crossed with Solanum habrochiates. I will post a photo here (perhaps in a separate thread) for those interested.

William S.

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #5 on: 2018-10-12, 09:44:45 AM »
William, I was reading an article the other day which indicated that S peruvianum can accept pollen from S pennellii. Might be worth exploring as a bridge cross.

That's cool. I have or had some seed for pure pennelii from you but my only seedling died this spring, but I have a plant of the hybrid with domestic from Andrew, so will try it soon. Using Peruvianum as the father did not work, but maybe the opposite will.
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William S.

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #6 on: 2018-10-12, 09:52:13 AM »
Nice,  loving this thread already. I too am working with William, Joseph, and others on what i unofficially call "The Great Wild Tomato Breeding Project" hahaha. But yes,  Solanum peruvianum is one of the more interesting species that we have yet to cross with domestic tomatoes and maybe even other wilds, but is a very interesting species. It grows well for me and i think has good drought tolerant root genetics.

I helped send one line of [Domestic tomato x S. Pennellii] hybrids to Joseph and others to help get that germplasm out there. But i am interested in or working with many other species as well. This summer i had an unknown bee pollinated wild tomato hybrid (or hybrids) show up. So far it looks to be a Solanum cheesmaniae or galapagense crossed with Solanum habrochiates. I will post a photo here (perhaps in a separate thread) for those interested.

Yeah I envision this as a very narrow part of a puzzle which should contribute to other larger projects in the plural. Sort of a breeding tool to open up peruvianum germ plasm for use by amateur plant breeders in cross breeding with other tomato species including domestic tomatoes.
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bill

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #7 on: 2018-10-12, 10:39:56 AM »
It's my understanding that all tomato species are the same ploidy level. I believe it's 2n=24. I am not familiar with an endosperm balance number concept, but may just not have heard of it yet.

EBN is an important concept in potato breeding.  It determines cross compatibility more than ploidy does.  Species with compatible EBN are able to properly form the triploid endosperm, while those with different EBNs do not and therefore can only survive with extraordinary measures like embryo rescue.

I just did a quick search and read that EBN is operative in tomatoes and the Esculentum complex has 1EBN while the Peruvianum complex has mostly 2EBN.  If these were potatoes, that would suggest that the only possible cross would be Peruvianum x Esculentum, hoping that the Esculentum parent produces an unreduced gamate that would function as 4x/2EBN.  The expected progeny would then be 3x/2EBN.  Another approach would be to chromosome double the Esculentum parent, which would then give 3x/2EBN progeny from the reciprocal cross.

Here is the paper that mentions this:
https://vcru.wisc.edu/spoonerlab/pdf/Peralta%20and%20Spooner%20D'Arcy%20volume.pdf

I have a blog post that describes how to work with EBN in potatoes, which might help:
https://www.cultivariable.com/potato-a-ploidy-primer/
« Last Edit: 2018-10-12, 10:46:08 AM by bill »

William S.

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #8 on: 2018-10-12, 11:26:30 AM »
EBN is an important concept in potato breeding.  It determines cross compatibility more than ploidy does.  Species with compatible EBN are able to properly form the triploid endosperm, while those with different EBNs do not and therefore can only survive with extraordinary measures like embryo rescue.

I just did a quick search and read that EBN is operative in tomatoes and the Esculentum complex has 1EBN while the Peruvianum complex has mostly 2EBN.  If these were potatoes, that would suggest that the only possible cross would be Peruvianum x Esculentum, hoping that the Esculentum parent produces an unreduced gamate that would function as 4x/2EBN.  The expected progeny would then be 3x/2EBN.  Another approach would be to chromosome double the Esculentum parent, which would then give 3x/2EBN progeny from the reciprocal cross.

Here is the paper that mentions this:
https://vcru.wisc.edu/spoonerlab/pdf/Peralta%20and%20Spooner%20D'Arcy%20volume.pdf

I have a blog post that describes how to work with EBN in potatoes, which might help:
https://www.cultivariable.com/potato-a-ploidy-primer/

I will have to study EBN more, I looked but it will require a little more study on my part to fully understand.

The study you linked to mentions the Maranon group of peruvianum. This group has been given the name Solanum arcanum. The most straightforward way to make the cross is peruvianum as the father and domestic tomato as the mother, with embryo rescue at about 25 days after pollination. I intend to attempt this if I can finish a contract and get some free time.

However there are Solanum arcanum and Solanum chilense accessions known to be bridging lines. They allow a very limited number of seeds to mature and apparently across the two EBN groups in tomato without embryo rescue and without ploidy changes.

In some ways this is more interesting. Because if 0.2 seeds can be produced per fruit, ten pollination could result in a mature viable seed. No technology required other than forceps and patience. See below:

 
Quote from: Tom Wagner


Interesting reading
http://tgc.ifas.ufl.edu/vol50/Volume50.pdf
page 30 Lycopersicon chilense-derived bridge lines for introgressing L. peruvianum traits into the esculentum genome


Part of an interesting post on this subject from Tom Wagner's board. The link is to a very interesting article about bridge lines.

I've received seed from TGRC for the following two Solanum arcanum accessions mentioned in the article
LA1708
LA2172
and seed for the Solanum chilense accession mentioned in the article
LA1932

« Last Edit: 2018-10-12, 10:21:31 PM by William S. »
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Andrew Barney

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #9 on: 2018-10-12, 12:11:32 PM »
Interesting on the EBN front,  i too will need to research it more to understand it fully,  as well as what the acronym EBN actually stands for in the English language. (Some of our french speaking members might also get confused by english acronyms too, so i generally try to avoid them whenever possible).

I plan to pursue an idea i got from one of the papers by Patricia Bedinger at Colorado State University where she talks about tomato compatibility barriers. She presents an idea that in flowers at minus 5 days mature have no standard incompatibility mechanisms in place yet and can often be cross pollinated interspecies with help from stigma exudiate to help the pollen stick.

I plan to continue trying this idea with peruvianum as i had some success with it i believe with one of my F2 generation pennellii hybrids that seemed to be self incompatible and/or pollen sterile. I lost those fruits from negligence on my part,  but i plan to try again.

William S.

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #10 on: 2018-10-12, 06:24:35 PM »
I need to understand your -5 day concept better andrew. Sounds like it could overcome what seems to be pollen incompatibility for me with my penelli x domestic and habrochaites x domestic. Though it will also be interesting to use them as pollen donors on the peruvianum.
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Andrew Barney

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #11 on: 2018-10-13, 09:51:01 AM »
I need to understand your -5 day concept better andrew. Sounds like it could overcome what seems to be pollen incompatibility for me with my penelli x domestic and habrochaites x domestic. Though it will also be interesting to use them as pollen donors on the peruvianum.

Yeah, here is the main Bedinger paper i have been referencing. In one of the threads on Homegrown Goodness we had a great discussion about coming up with a simple protocol using walnut oil to help pollen stick to the stigmas. I will have to copy that relevant information from there to here at some point. But i think it helped when i was trying to pollinate my F2 pennellii that had no pollen and was not setting fruit even with using domestic pollen.

Quote
Although self-incompatibility (SI) in plants has been studied extensively, far less is known about interspecific reproductive
barriers. One interspecific barrier, known as unilateral incongruity or incompatibility (UI), occurs when species
display unidirectional compatibility in interspecific crosses. In the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii, both SI and
self-compatible (SC) populations express UI when crossed with domesticated tomato, offering a useful model system
to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive barriers. In this study, the timing of reproductive barrier
establishment during pistil development was determined in SI and SC accessions of S. pennellii using a semi-in vivo
system to track pollen-tube growth in developing styles. Both SI and UI barriers were absent in styles 5 days prior to
flower opening, but were established by 2 days before flower opening, with partial barriers detected during a transition
period 34 days before flower opening.
Quote
The node with a freshly
opened flower is considered as stage 0 and the subtending
nodes are successively staged as −1, −2, −3, etc. In SC accession
LA0716, petals begin to separate earlier in bud development,
so in this accession stage 0 was assigned to flowers when
petals (and anthers) attain full bright yellow color and were
completely open.

https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article-pdf/64/1/265/17130455/ers324.pdf

Here is another interesting Bedinger paper, but don't necessarily get discouraged by the crossing table of peruvianum, i still think your idea and my idea are well worth trying. And the EBN stuff might be interesting as well.

https://vanderknaaplab.uga.edu/files/Bedinger_Sex_Plant_Review.pdf

William S.

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #12 on: 2018-10-13, 03:09:48 PM »
That photo of the S. Peruvianum flower with the labels is super helpful, I hadn't seen one labeled past -2 before. I would normally, looking at those flowers, probably tear apart the -1 flower, pollinate it two days in a row, and clip off all the others. Dissecting a -5 is going to be a smidgeon more difficult. The walnut oil is modified?
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Andrew Barney

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Re: Crossing and Bridging with Solanum peruvianum
« Reply #13 on: 2018-10-13, 11:36:51 PM »
The walnut oil is modified?

I was initially experimenting with just pure walnut oil and i seemed to be having some success. But the idea was that Walnut oil has about 51% linoleic acid, and i was kind of saying that linolein might basically be the same as trilinolein (what was being used in the paper), and that linolein might basically be linoleic acid and glycerin. I know that my biochemistry might be off, and i'm not really wanting any smart scientists to correct me if i'm wrong haha, but it seemed like a reasonable supposition.

andyb sort of was thinking along the same lines and was trying to use the walnut oil and glycerin idea but to try and add the boric acid and water like the paper was using. A sort of DIY approach. (walnut oil, sugar, water, and ant poison (boric acid)). andyb was using this on trying inter-specific runner bean crosses.

If i remember correctly both the linoleic acid and boric acid are to help stimulate pollen growth.

http://alanbishop.proboards.com/thread/8996/peruvianum-pennellii-crosses?page=6
« Last Edit: 2018-10-13, 11:38:28 PM by Andrew Barney »