Author Topic: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes  (Read 693 times)

William S.

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Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« on: 2021-03-21, 11:09:39 PM »
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=JRKSzWSPQnw

Over a year ago now I watched the above video.

This led me to request a packet of LA2329 from the Tomato Genetics Conservation Center TGRC.

Currently growing that accession a second time.

One of my primary thoughts originally is that this could make a difference for direct seeding tomatoes for cooperators that were struggling with early season mortality from mites (correction: flea beetles)

Thought I should start a dedicated thread.
« Last Edit: 2021-03-22, 07:09:12 PM by William S. »
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William S.

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Joseph Lofthouse

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #2 on: 2021-03-22, 12:21:14 PM »

It is flea beetles that consume the cotyledons of my tomatoes.

My short season is long enough that I could grow direct seeded tomatoes, if they survived the first few weeks after germination.

Here's the 8 plants of LA2329 that I am growing. They sure are smelly!!!

William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #3 on: 2021-03-22, 07:24:03 PM »
Last year I really loved the hairiness. I planted them in some extra clay infused soil by chance and the plants stayed small even for my garden. I don't remember smelling them. My sense of smell is not as acute as it could be. They bloomed alot. Very curious to find out if they crossed with the other habrochaites nearby last year. Assuming it's possible to tell.

Have thirty seedlings from the original packet so far and probably over one hundred from the 2020 grown seed. 
« Last Edit: 2021-03-22, 07:48:07 PM by William S. »
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William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #4 on: 2021-03-23, 03:50:26 AM »
Last Year
« Last Edit: 2021-03-23, 11:47:36 AM by William S. »
Western Montana garden, glacial lake Missoula sediment lacustrian parent material and shallow 7" silty clay loam mollisoil topsoil sometimes with added sand in places. Zone 6A with 100 to 130 frost free days

William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #5 on: 2021-03-23, 03:12:28 PM »
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=iAWbv1bwNkk
Another YouTube video I have not watched yet. Edit: watched it fast forwarded most of it. Not that interesting.

https://tgc.ifas.ufl.edu/TBRT%202018/PestR/Introgression%20of%20type%20IV%20trichomesand%20zingibereneinto%20tomato%20from%20S.%20habrochaites,%20LA2329%20Current%20status%20Synder.pdf
Pdf Garrett found recently.

https://www.actahort.org/books/944/944_1.htm
Looks interesting- just found.

https://portal.nifa.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/0223718-arthropod-resistance-of-lycopersicon-hirsutum-la2329-a-wild-relative-of-tomato.html
Also interesting.

Note: have 104 germinates of 2020 grown LA2329 and 30 from the original packet. I followed the intense 30 minute at 50% bleach protocol from the TGRC website which they recommend for habrochaites. This accession is germinating faster and more throughly than almost any other tomato I am growing. It's relatively cold downstairs.
« Last Edit: 2021-03-23, 03:53:12 PM by William S. »
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Garrett Schantz

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #6 on: 2021-03-23, 06:11:48 PM »
Second link mentioned PI 134417 having 2-Tridecanone in its leaves which can kill parasites, other insects. So figured I would do a small search.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7377420_Natural_Products_Repellency_and_Toxicity_of_Wild_Tomato_Leaf_Extracts_to_the_Two-Spotted_Spider_Mite_Tetranychus_urticae_Koch

Ended up finding this fun link. Seems like there are different chemicals in different accessions. Could try out multiple accessions, wouldn't want insects to adapt too quickly... The link provides even more accessions. Might be able to find related research with these. 

Lethality of extracts was mainly associated with the presence of high concentrations of 2-tridecanone; repellency of extracts was mainly associated with the presence of trans-caryophyllene. Leaf extracts of L. hirsutum f. glabratum accessions that contain significant quantities of 2-tridecanone and/or trans-caryophyllene could be useful for managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic pesticides. Zingiberene isn't mentioned here very much - it was mentioned in the other studies using LA2329 frequently.

Edit: 2-Tridecanone is mentioned once in the nifa.usda link. The actahort link doesn't contain 2-tridecanone either, could be in the full book though. Trans-caryophyllene isn't mentioned in any of the other links.

The S. habrochaites accession PI 134417 produces intermediate-chain methyl ketones in its trichome secretions. Four MKs (2-tridecanone, 2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-pentadecanone) and their mixture were screened for repellency and ability to alter fecundity of spider mites. All MKs repelled spider mites. Spray application of crude leaf extracts prepared in ethanol, average number of eggs/female mite dropped from 0.9 to 0.3 24 h after exposure a 68% reduction, suggesting that crude extracts of certain S. habrochaites accessions may possess anti-arthropod activities, and could be useful as an aid in agriculture. - nifa.usda link

Could be that some of these chemicals just weren't identified or named in LA2329 research projects.

Some other accessions that were highly repellant:
PI 134417 (No Known Plant ID) Ecuador
PI 134418 (No Known Plant ID) Ecuador
PI 251304 (LA0407) Ecuador
PI 126449 (26) Peru

Assuming that PI 134417 and PI 134418 were collected from around the same area. Could have different chemical levels? If they have no differences, there probably wouldn't be two accessions. Only one of these is from outside Ecuador.

Managed to find the LA0407 name by searching PI 251304 in the database. Helped me find this fun little PDF https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nph.14130.

It mentions LA1777 and LA0407 introgression lines, all sorts of fun stuff. LA0407 is similar to LA2329, so this some of this research probably still fits in pretty well.

The difference here seems to be that LA0407 is Self Compatible, LA1777 is Self Incompatible.

Talks a good bit about intraspecific crosses being linked to SI, and other things.

Luckily LA2329 crosses well enough with domestics that this research isn't needed for this accession.
« Last Edit: 2021-03-23, 07:49:21 PM by Garrett Schantz »

William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #7 on: 2021-03-23, 09:48:17 PM »
Yeah, there is so much that could be done. I'm going to stay focused on LA2329 for awhile on this project. This year mainly I hope to raise enough seed to share decent amounts with close collaborators. Also hope to see if I can plant one R18 with the LA2329 and get basically 50% LA2329 offspring that will cross back to LA2329 next year. So far only four R18 have sprouted. R18 is a selection Joseph made last year believed to have the best promiscuity. If so a single plant would have to be pollinated by the wild tomatoes and woyld probably contribute some pollen to the wild tomatoes. Also the six seeds of Joseph's habrochaites cytoplasm line have insofar not sprouted. I thought I would keep those next to the LA2329 population as well as the lone R18. Perhaps should have used bleach more widely. It's too soon yet to replant.
« Last Edit: 2021-03-23, 10:04:04 PM by William S. »
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William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #8 on: 2021-06-04, 07:56:29 AM »
Yesterday I found what I thought was flea beetles damaging some promiscuous project cotyledons in a limited area of the sand over manure compost beds. I also found what I thought was mammals (voles or deer mice) destroying some promiscuous project transplants while leaving the LA2329 I interplanted them with alone.
Western Montana garden, glacial lake Missoula sediment lacustrian parent material and shallow 7" silty clay loam mollisoil topsoil sometimes with added sand in places. Zone 6A with 100 to 130 frost free days

William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #9 on: 2021-06-04, 08:05:38 AM »
Yeah, there is so much that could be done. I'm going to stay focused on LA2329 for awhile on this project. This year mainly I hope to raise enough seed to share decent amounts with close collaborators. Also hope to see if I can plant one R18 with the LA2329 and get basically 50% LA2329 offspring that will cross back to LA2329 next year. So far only four R18 have sprouted. R18 is a selection Joseph made last year believed to have the best promiscuity. If so a single plant would have to be pollinated by the wild tomatoes and woyld probably contribute some pollen to the wild tomatoes. Also the six seeds of Joseph's habrochaites cytoplasm line have insofar not sprouted. I thought I would keep those next to the LA2329 population as well as the lone R18. Perhaps should have used bleach more widely. It's too soon yet to replant.

I put the hab cytoplasm line out to soon and it froze and has not resprouted so far.

I decided the R18 was too precious so substituted about 9 of my home saved promiscuous bicolors. They are the ones being predated by rodents. Still hopeful the rodents will miss one.
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William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #10 on: 2021-08-08, 09:48:36 PM »
Just a few berries formed on the LA2329 on a single branch but the bloom is still ramping up. I'm curious though I've seen bumblebee visits. Why so few fruits?

Also my Solanum galapagense has lots of green berries forming. Tiny flowers.
Western Montana garden, glacial lake Missoula sediment lacustrian parent material and shallow 7" silty clay loam mollisoil topsoil sometimes with added sand in places. Zone 6A with 100 to 130 frost free days

William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #11 on: 2021-08-27, 06:35:39 PM »
Just a few berries formed on the LA2329 on a single branch but the bloom is still ramping up. I'm curious though I've seen bumblebee visits. Why so few fruits?

Also my Solanum galapagense has lots of green berries forming. Tiny flowers.

Got three more ripe berries off the LA 1410 galapagense today.

Found a few more inflorescences on the LA 2329 habrochaites with fruit and a few more parents but mostly dissapointingly unproductive. I suspect I am doomed to work with a subset of the genetic potential in the accession as it adapts itself to my climate.

 I Found one single fruit on the promiscuous project plant on the end of the LA2329 crossing block. Not an exserted plant but good evidence of obligate out crossing and the stigma is right on the edge where you can see it. Intriguing. 

The promiscuous plant in the LA2329 crossing block with initially seed free fruits has been continuously ripening a few more seed free fruits. Eventually I hope they'll have seed in them! Picked another today.

The promiscuous plant at the other end of the LA2329 block next to the arcanum plant which has good exsertion and aborted all early fruits has about 7 fruits on it now and I think the largest is starting the earliest stages of blushing color. Hope it's full of hybrid seed with LA2329!

The three full domestics in the midst of the crossing block I have been mostly just eating because I figured the early fruits would be less likely to be crosses with LA2329. I decided today to start collecting them. Any interspecies hybrids should be obvious in a seedling tray from hab x type leaves and vigour. They are exserted tiger, big hill and MMS. MMS has only modest exsertion but any regular leaf offspring will be a hybrid even if only with another domestic or a promiscuous project plant.
« Last Edit: 2021-08-27, 06:56:52 PM by William S. »
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William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #12 on: 2021-09-16, 09:58:29 PM »
Have a big batch of the LA 1410 Solanum galapagense fermenting and a smaller bag picked. Good year after all for it.

LA 2329 habrochaites hasn't released a berry yet. Have sprinklers on it tonight in case of a light frost though I suspect it will be ok.
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Garrett Schantz

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #13 on: 2021-09-17, 03:32:19 PM »
My S. habrochaites with supposed insect resistances haven't flowered yet...

I may take some cuttings of them.

William S.

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Re: Arthropod and Insect Resistant Tomatoes
« Reply #14 on: 2021-09-17, 05:23:08 PM »
I may make some bouquets of the branches with immature berries and see if they will finish the seed.

I set a sprinkler on the LA 2329 last night and it is one of the only things still blooming after rhe frost.
« Last Edit: 2021-09-17, 06:57:26 PM by William S. »
Western Montana garden, glacial lake Missoula sediment lacustrian parent material and shallow 7" silty clay loam mollisoil topsoil sometimes with added sand in places. Zone 6A with 100 to 130 frost free days