Author Topic: Breeding for pea weevil resistance  (Read 368 times)

Joseph Lofthouse

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Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« on: 2019-06-18, 08:28:31 AM »
I more or less stopped growing peas because of pea weevils. I love peas. I want to grow them. Do you have any ideas about what a breeding project would look like to select for pea-weevil resistance? Are there resistant cultivars already? Any closely related species that are resistant? How would I even arrange the trials? Seems like I'd have to plant them far apart from each other to be able to keep the seeds separate from each plant... Or do I just do mass selection, raising tons of seeds, and sort them after the weevils emerge, hoping that somehow not having a weevil inside the seed is a heritable trait?

Andrew Barney

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #1 on: 2019-06-18, 12:21:40 PM »
I've thought about this the last few seasons since you mentioned that. I think such a project would be very interesting. But I wonder if one might need to adjust one's expectations. What do you really want? Shelling, snow, snap, or soup? Customers seem to want snap peas above all others.

For example, for weevil or other pest resistance you might need to select for tough leathery skin and thus perhaps aim more for shelling types rather than low fiber snow peas.

Perhaps other traits like tannins, anthocyanins, or orange-pod or orange cotelydon genetics might deter such pests in other ways through chemistry. Though those genetics may also affect flavor and palatbility for humans.

It might be worth asking an entomologist what he might do.

Mass selection might work if you're willing to dig through and mark which ones appear to have no damage. But i'm thinking separate rows with trellises/chicken wire (if you want to) and just mark down numbers of pea weevil damage. That would require paper and taking notes though ;)

I'm thinking stick more toward shelling types. Maybe the old purple podded shelling Capujiners. It seemed very leathery to me.
« Last Edit: 2019-06-18, 12:24:31 PM by Andrew Barney »

Andrew Barney

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #2 on: 2019-06-18, 12:22:42 PM »
I sent some wild pea germplasm to Dianne to grow out. Pisum fulvum may hold interesting genetics.

Steve1

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #3 on: 2019-06-18, 04:12:04 PM »
Resistance to pea bruchid (Bruchus pisorum) has been described in P. fulvum and is conferred by three genes and a number of polymorphic AFLP bands for resistance have been identified [42,194]. This is from Smykal 2012 (Pea in the genomic era). According to that paper it's supposed to be pretty well introgressed into field pea lines. Evidently pod and seed infection are controlled by separate genes.

This is an Australian paper from 2008. Again, 3 genes from fulvum.

http://www.academia.edu/download/43186266/Genetic_analysis_of_pod_and_seed_resista20160229-17869-1rcd89m.pdf

According to that paper it's supposed to be pretty well introgressed into field pea lines. Evidently pod and seed infection are controlled by separate genes. None of the resistance is complete.

Transferring the genes from fulvum all over would be painful. The five F1 plants from my fulvum x sativum cross gave two seeds. In hindsight I should likely of done congruity backcrossing and used germinated pollen from the stigma of the parent. My guess is that helps overcome the stigmatic imcompatibilty.

cheers
Steve
« Last Edit: 2019-06-18, 05:53:40 PM by Steve1 »

galina

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #4 on: 2019-06-19, 08:35:38 AM »
Talking about UK conditions, peas harvested in June are fine, from July onwards pea maggots occur.  I am talking about Cydonia nigricana, the maggots that eat the peas inside the pods and not Bruchus, which is not a big problem here. 

In order to harvest most of ours before finding maggots inside, I sow in February and transplant a month later.  Up to early March is still ok, but no later.  When I plant them out we still have frosts, but peas can take quite a few degrees of frost.

For us resistance against pea maggot would be far more significant than resistance against bruchus.   
Central England, cool, maritime (ish), cloudy, often dry, but recent weather unpredictable

Steve1

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #5 on: 2019-06-20, 04:51:39 AM »
What is the Latin name for the pea maggots Galina?
Interested to know...
Bruchids worldwide are a huge problem in stored seed, particularly field peas. I did some more searching and could find no reference in the Australian field peas as to whether the resistance had been introgressed. Might send the author an email next week.

Cheers
Steve

Diane Whitehead

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #6 on: 2019-06-20, 08:25:32 AM »
The P. fulvum #2 that Andrew sent me produced one weak wispy plant that is in the process of dying without progeny.
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
cool mediterranean climate  warm dry summers, mild wet winters,  70 cm rain,   sandy soil

Andrew Barney

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #7 on: 2019-06-20, 09:39:19 AM »
The P. fulvum #2 that Andrew sent me produced one weak wispy plant that is in the process of dying without progeny.

Oh, how sad... lol.

I think I may have several P. Fulvum in my garden this year that are doing well. According to my planting notes anyway.

Doro

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #8 on: 2019-06-20, 09:56:42 AM »
I have not seen pea weevil (Bruchus) here. Yet. So I don't know.

The pea maggots (Cydonia) are a problem in some years. I think some winters are too harsh, other winters they survive close enough to travel to my garden. I don't think they have overwintered yet in my zone, but sooner or later that's going to change. Typically they are worst in late July and August here. When it's a maggot year, they attacked all kinds of peas. Even the tough high fibre pods with high tannin of some grey pea varieties are eaten. They seem to prefer sweet snow peas and go for them first, but if nothing else is there they will eat any pea. Fleece as a physical barrier is the only thing that helped, but that's not exactly practical for a larger growing area.
I usually just hope for the best and discard damaged pods, so far they leave me enough edible harvest.

galina

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #9 on: 2019-06-20, 12:59:58 PM »
What is the Latin name for the pea maggots Galina?
Interested to know...
Bruchids worldwide are a huge problem in stored seed, particularly field peas. I did some more searching and could find no reference in the Australian field peas as to whether the resistance had been introgressed. Might send the author an email next week.

Cheers
Steve

 Cydonia nigricana

https://gardening.which.co.uk/hc/en-gb/articles/115001755189-Pea-moth
« Last Edit: 2019-06-20, 01:01:34 PM by galina »
Central England, cool, maritime (ish), cloudy, often dry, but recent weather unpredictable

Steve1

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #10 on: 2019-07-29, 06:58:29 AM »
I have not seen pea weevil (Bruchus) here. Yet. So I don't know.

The pea maggots (Cydonia) are a problem in some years. I think some winters are too harsh, other winters they survive close enough to travel to my garden. I don't think they have overwintered yet in my zone, but sooner or later that's going to change. Typically they are worst in late July and August here. When it's a maggot year, they attacked all kinds of peas. Even the tough high fibre pods with high tannin of some grey pea varieties are eaten. They seem to prefer sweet snow peas and go for them first, but if nothing else is there they will eat any pea. Fleece as a physical barrier is the only thing that helped, but that's not exactly practical for a larger growing area.
I usually just hope for the best and discard damaged pods, so far they leave me enough edible harvest.

The fulvum are much slighter plants. We grow them every year as part of a student project. The line I have has orange flowers which are perhaps a little larger than a tepary.

Andrew Barney

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Re: Breeding for pea weevil resistance
« Reply #11 on: 2019-08-28, 05:50:43 PM »
Joseph, you might find this research interesting!

https://www.crops.org/science-news/breeding-beans-resist-weevils